: Health,Psychology,Sağlık Blog-: LEARNİNG DİSABİLİTİES


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Learning disorder is a neurobiological disorder, meaning that there are differences in brain structure of function that lead to difficulty in learning to read, write expressively, speak or compute math. These differences impede the ability to store, process or produce information. People with learning disability have trouble learning because their minds process words or information differently than people who learn normally. They are normal or above average intelligence, but their learning disorders creates a gap between their ability and their performance.Although learning disorders do not go away, people can learn to work with their areas of difficulty.
Learning disorders are lifelong conditions that can affect much of a person’s life, including daily routines, family relationship, schoolwork and even friendship.
Learning disorders affect people’s ability to informations from different parts of the brain and to interpret what they see and hear. These limitations can show up in many ways as spesific difficulties with spoken and written language, coordination self-control or attention.


Most of us have probably heard of the most common learning disorders “DYSLEXIA” or reading disorders. But there are also mathematics disorders and disorders of written expression. Those who have heard of dyslexia most likely think of a friend or classmate who reverses certain letters or speaks slowly. But in more extreme cases, children with dyslexia appear to have problems with the simplest rules such as “it” and “the”, have trouble distinguishing between “from” and “form”.


The APA defines, learning disorders as developed a development difficulties that include three groups:
· Reading Disorders
· Mathematic Disorders
· Written Expression Disorders
Learning disorders suspected when the individual’s scores on standardized test in reading, mathematics or written expression are substanially below the level excepted for his/her age, schooling and intelligence. All three disorders can occur with problems in attention and the development of social skills. This can lead to difficulties in school relationships such as buılding friendships. Person’s who have learning disorders commonly also have problems with communication or a lack of motor skills and perhaps exhibit other symptoms of anxiety, motivational problems or associated psychiatric disorders.


Education profesional have the task of distinguishing students with learning disabilities from students who are nondisabled low achievers and students with mild mental retardation. In some school districts a student who falls more than two grade levels behind expections and has an IQ in the normal range is likely to be called learning disabled.
Do you wonder if you have learning disability? If you have reached high school without the assistance of special education classes or tutorial help, the chances are good that any problem you have is mild one. Most of the reasons for academic problems in high school are not related to learning disabilities. Poor study habits, heavy academic loads, difficult subject matter, too many extracurricular activities, and personal of family stress are more often the too blame. On the other hand, if you are having serious academic difficulty no matter how hard you study, you may have an undiagnosed disability.
The most freguently displayed symptoms of learning disabilities are listed. Most of us exhibit a few of these characteristics at one time or another. But the persistance of a duster of these problems could signify a learning disability.
· Normal intelligence or even giftedness
· Hyperactivity or impulsiveness
· Discrepancy between intelligence and performance
· Perceptual anomalies, such as reversing letters, words or numbers
· Erratic performance from day to day
· Difficulty telling time or distinguishing left from right
· Difficulty solving problems
· Trouble naming familiar people or things
· Late speech development, immature speech
· Says one thing, mean another
· Specific disorders of memory, thinking or language
· Poor handwriting
· Overreliance on teacher and peer for assignments
· Immature social skills
· Can not follow multiple directions
Definitions of learning disabilities have historically required that there be a serious discrepancy between actual performance and the performance that might have been predicted on the basis of one or more tests of cognitive functioning, such as an IQ test. In practice, many children are indentified as having a learning disability as a result of having substantial differences between some subscales of an IQ test and others or between one ability test and another.
The studies also point to a very emphasis for prevention and treatment. There has been a long tradition of searching for exotic treatments for learning disabilities, from engaging children in activities to increase their hand eye coordination to placing colored filters over reading materials to experimenting with childrens diets.
On the average, students with learning disabilities tend to have lower self-esteem than do nondisabled students. However, as was mentioned previosly, on most social dimensions, children with learning disabilities resemble other low achievers. Boys are more likely than girls to be labeled as learning disabled. African Americans, Latinos and children from families in which the head of household has not attended college tend to be over represented in special education classes, while female student to be over represented, there ıs a great deal of concern about the over identification of boys and minority students in special education.


There are many types of learning disabilities, and issues in teaching students with learning disabilities differ by age level. A student with learning disabilities is less likely than other students to learn from poor instruction. General concepts of effective teaching for students with learning disabilities include these:
1-Emphasize prevention: Many of the learning deficits that cause a child to be categorized as having learning disabilities, can be prevented. For example, one-to-one tutoring for first graders struggling with reading can be particularly effective in preventing reading disabilities.

2-Teaching learning-to-learn skills: Many studies have shown that students with learning disabilities who are directly taught study strategies and other cognitive strategies perform significantly better in school. For example, teach them to monitor their own progress and regulate the time, effort they spend on each assignment.

3-Give frequent feedback: Students with learning disabilities are less likely than other students to be able to work productively for long periods of time with little or no feedback. For example,these students are likely to do better with brief, concrete assignments that are immediately scored than with long-term assignment. If long-term projects or reports are assigned, the students should have many intermediate goals and should get feedback on each.

4-Use teaching strategies that engage students actively in lessons: Students with learning disabilities are particularly unlikely yo learn from long lectures. They tend to do best when they are actively involved. The teachers should use active learning methods in classroom such as hands-on projects and cooperative learning.

5-Use effective classroom management methods: Because of their difficulties with information processing and language, many students with learning disorder experience a great deal of frustration in school and respond by engaging in minor (or major) misbehavior. Effective classroom management method can greatly reduce this misbehavior. For example, the students with learning disabilities are likely to respond well to a rapid pace of instruction with much variety and many opportunities to participate and respond successfully.

6-Coordinate supplementary services with classroom instruction: Many students with learning disabilities will need some sort of supplementary services, such as small group tutorials, resource teachers, one-to-one tutoring, or computer-assisted instruction.

7-Know the warning signs: Monitor each student’s ability and involvement in your classroom. If a student consistently displays difficulty with such behaviors as spoken, written, language, memory, attention, concentration, physical coordination, social behavior and organizational skills; it is a good indication of a possible learning disability.


Classroom accomodations are also possible and can help a student compensate for his or her learning disability. Accomodations in the classroom can include:
· Taped textbooks available through Recording for the Blind;
· Extended time on tests;
· Tutoring;
· Use of a notetaker, for students who have trouble listening in class and taking notes;
· Use of a scribe during test taking, for students who have trouble writing but who can express their answers verbally to the scribe, who writes down the responses;
· Use of a reader during test taking, for students who have trouble reading test questions;
· Tape recording of class lectures; and
· Testing in a quiet place, for students who are easily distracted. The suggestions presented in the reminder of this article focus upon what parents can do to help a child with a learning disability learn and function within the home.

ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder): Students with specifi learning disabilities often also have behavioral problems. They may be unable to control their behavior. Attention deficit become a particularly serious problem for students. Such children may be labled impulsive or hyperactive.
Children who have difficulty focusing their attention long enough or well enough to learn is attention deficit disorder(ADD). Distinguishing attention deficit disorder from learning disabilities and from behavioral disorder or misbehavior is continuing challenge, especially since students with learning disabilities often have attentional , emotional and behavioral problems as well.

ADHD( Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder): Students with ADHD have difficulties maintaining attention because of a limited ability to concentrate. ADHD includes impulsive actions and hyperactive behavior. These characteristics differentiate students with ADHD from students with learning disabilities, who have attention deficits for other unknown reasons. Children with attention deficit disorders do not qualify for special education unless they also have some other disability condition that is defined in the law. 3 to 5 of all children may have the ADD or ADHD. Research indicates that males with ADHD more than female.


Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder is the most common disorder observed in conjunction with learning disorders. It typically appears with reading disorders, altough it has been seen with other learning disorders as well. Children with ADHD have trouble paying attention to anyone think for a long period of time and exhibit hyperactive behavior. Frequently, they are also easily irritated. These behaviors, like learning disorders, make it hard for these children to perform well in school and can cause many of the same repercussions. For example, a boy with ADHD who becomes a “class clown” because he has difficulties paying attention to the teacher.
Childern with learning disorders are often considered “slow” or “dumb” by others who do not understand their problems, children suffering form ADHD or related behavioral disorders are told they are “disrespectful”, “bad” kids because of their difficulties behaving appropriately for the classroom environment.
Children with ADHD are helped by some of the same teaching strategies used with learning- disordered children. One of one , personalized attention seems to help focus and understand material, and many students show improvement in a “resource room” setting, where they can participate in varied activities to help them learn. With this kind of directed attention, they can learn the social, academic and organiztional skills they need to be able to become successful in their adult lives. Adults with ADHD learn to structure their working environments very simply, so that they have fewer things to distract them when they are trying to concentrate on single tasks, just as adults with learning disorders learn how to approach the subjects that give them trouble in different ways, allotting extra time if necessary and employing creative- solving strategies. One difference between two conditions is that treatement of ADHD also frequently involves stimulants, where as learning disorders are not normally treatable with medication.
Doctors are still not sure exactly what causes ADHD, or how it is related to learning disorders. Some research indicates that problems may be related to changes in the way that neurons connect in the brain, and children with certain risk factors – such as alcohol use by their mothers during the later part of pregnancy. Scientist hope to further understand how ADHD and learning disorders develop, and find new ways to approach treatment so that people with learning disorders or ADHD can live normal,happy lives.


ADHD is usually associated with in attention , impulsivity and hyperactivity. Specific suggestions for the general education classroom teacher who has students with ADHD include the followings;
· Make sure students understand all classroom rules and procedures.
· Consider carefully the seating arrangement of students with ADHD to prevent distractions and to keep these students in proximity to the teacher.
· Adhere to the principles of effective classroom management.
· Understand that certain behaviors(may not able to control their behaviors).
· Allows students who are hyperactive to have opportunities to be active.
· Refrain from implementing a behavior management system that is predicated mostly on the use of punishment or threats.
· Group students with ADHD wisely, taking into considereation the purpose of the group and the other students who will be members of the group.
· Prepare students for all types of transitions that occur in the school day.
· Teach students to manage their own behaviors(self-monitoring, self-evaluation...).
· Use homework assingment books with these students.
· Collaborate with special education personnel to develop behavioral and instructional plans for dealing with attention problems.
Intentional teachers relish their responsibility to each of their students. They create inclusıve environments and commit to fostering learning for all students. And they serve as members of professional teams in order to collebrate to meet the needs of students with special needs.


What am I traying to accompolish ?
Think abuot the goals you have devise for students learning consider the extend to which each of those goals is appropriate for learners with special needs. Work with other professionals yo developed formal goals statements. And consider your goal for your professional development.

What are my students relevant experiences and needs ?
Identification of student’s special educatıonal needs may being before students enter formal schooling. When students with document special needs are assigned to your class, talk with students, their parents and professionals about students preferences and past success. Observe carefully for signs that students need extra support.

What approaches and materials are available to help me challenge every students ?
Teachers need to create physical and intellectual environment that makes important ideas accessible to all. -How will you reach each students?- and teacher need to create social environment that fosters acceptance for every students. –how you will encourage students to accept and help each others?- Instruction should meet individual needs. Select from a variety of strategies to modify your instruction.

How will I know whether and when to change my strategy or modify instruction ?
Teachers need to use information from variety of sources to determine sources for syudents with special needs.
-What evidence do you have that students maintain positive self-concept?
-That their classmates self-concepts are similarly enriched?
-That students are learning?

What information I accept as evidence that my students and I are experiencing success ?
Coolbrate with parents and special education professionals in order to analyze the learning environment, instruction and learning outcomes.

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